Hockey Violations are divided into three basic categories:
Violations that result in a face-off
Violations that result in a player being awarded a penalty shot
Violations that result in a player being sent to the penalty box for a specified period of time
The following is a brief explanation of each category or type of violation. Naturally, there are technical aspects of each rule that will, at various times, determine whether or not the violation is called.
Off-Side — An offensive player may not precede the puck across the blue line into the offensive zone.
Off-Side Pass — The puck may not be passed from a team's defensive zone to a player of the same team who is beyond the center red line (applies only to Junior B and above).
Icing — A team, when both teams have an equal number of players on the ice, may not shoot the puck from behind the center red line over their opponent's goal line (except if the puck goes into the goal
A penalty shot is most commonly awarded if:
A player, while in a scoring position, is fouled from behind and deprived of a scoring opportunity; or
A defensive player grabs or falls on the puck when it is in the goal crease.
To take a penalty shot, an offensive player takes control of the puck at center ice and tries to score against the opposing goaltender. All other players are removed from the action.
For the following penalties, the penalized team must play minus the number of players serving such penalties, with one exception: the penalized team can have no fewer than four players, including the goaltender, on the ice (delayed penalty):
Minor Penalty — Two minutes. If a team is scored upon while they are shorthanded because of a minor penalty, the penalty shall terminate immediately.
Major Penalty — Five minutes. Does not terminate early for any reason.
Match Penalty — Five or ten minutes, depending upon the violation, and is served by a teammate. If assessed a match penalty, the offending player is ejected for the balance of the game and may not play in future games until the case has been reviewed by league administrators.
For the following penalties, the team will replace the penalized player on the ice immediately:
Misconduct – Ten Minutes, served in the Penalty Box
Game Misconduct — Ejection for the balance of the game and the player or coach will serve an additional one game suspension.
Gross Misconduct — Ejection for the balance of the game and the player may not participate in any future games until the case has been reviewed by league administrators